NON-DESTRUCTIVE TEST

Non-Destructive Testing or Non-Destructive Inspection is a method for detecting imperfections or deficiencies in and / or the surface of a material or component, without damaging, reducing or changing its intended function. Some NDT methods have the ability to test or test materials in both operational (in-service) and in-situ conditions

1. Visual Examination

Visual Testing is applied to detect imperfections or deficiencies in the surface of the material / component with Visual Examine or to be visually enhanced using a boroscope camera probe to reach the inner areas of components such as tubes, pipes, engine casings.

Advantages :
The visual exam is the simplest method for checking for deficiencies in a component. The test results can be obtained immediately after testing and can be saved in the form of photo or video image files.


Limitation :
The effectiveness of the inspection depends on the Inspector’s experience and visual sensitivity. The inspection area is only limited to the component surface.

Equipment :

Visual testing using a tool in the form of a flexible mini camera with varying lengths from 5 meters to 30 meters, which can be used to see the inner surface of the casing, tube or pipe components.

2. Thermal Imager / Infra Red Camera

Thermal Imager uses an infrared camera that detects infrared waves generated from the component surface temperature. The difference in temperature is converted to the difference in wavelengths captured by the infrared sensor. By knowing the description of the difference in the surface heat of the components, it can be estimated that there is abnormal operation of the component parts, for example there is excessive friction / vibration that causes heat, damage to shielding insulators, overheating of engine components, thinning (thickness thinning), and other anomalies. Furthermore, in the part that experiences thermal anomalies, with other NDT / NDE methods, a more specific examination is carried out to determine the level of damage and the causes that have occurred.

Advantages :
Anomalies in components can be detected quickly without having to inspect the components one by one, thereby reducing the possibility of failure.

3. Magnetic Test

Magnetic Test is carried out by applying a magnetic field to the material, then spraying it or sprinkling it with iron powder. If there are surface defects in the material, iron filings will collect in the area.

Advantage
The test results can be obtained immediately, documentation in the form of photos.

Limitation:
Can only check the surface of the material and can only be done on ferromagnetic materials.

4. Penetrant Test

The Penetrant Test is a testing technique that utilizes the capillary principle. Used for examining defects that are exposed to the surface and in non-porous materials.

Advantage:
Can be used to detect defects on the surface and the results can be immediately observed. Photo documentation.

Limitasi:
Cannot be applied to porous materials.

5. Eddy Current Test

In the Eddy Current Test, an electric current is generated in a conductive material by an inducing magnetic field. When passing through a defect, the magnetic field will be cut off causing a change in current. This change in current indicates a defect.

Advantage:
Can be used to detect defects on the surface and subsurface of the material. The test results can be immediately observed.

Limitasi
Cannot detect defects parallel to the probe.

6. Ultrasonic Test

Ultrasonic Test is a testing technique by detecting the reflected ultrasonic waves which are reflected by the material and displayed in the CRT as vertical pulses (Scan A).


Advantage
Can be used to detect defects in volumetric material, casting and forgings welds (location, dimensions and indication of defects) and material thickness. The test results can be immediately observed.

Limitasi
Cannot detect defects that are parallel to the direction of the coming waves.

7. Radiography Test

Radiographic testing is a testing technique by irradiating the material with radiation (X-rays / Gamma) which results are recorded on a film.

Advantage:
Can be used to detect defects in the surface, subsurface and volumeric material (location, dimensions and indication of defects) and thickness of the material.

Limitation:
The test results cannot be directly observed, it is necessary to process the film washing.

8. XRS – 3 Portable X-Ray Generator

XRS – 3 Portable X-Ray Generator is a Generator tool
The Next Generation X-Ray. Which this tool is very safe for the surroundings, the exposure is low (2 meters ≤ 2.5 mR / hour), so it can be used even though there are other workers around it. The use of the film is to use a digital image which is directly stored in computer memory. Because it does not use ordinary industrial films, the Radiograph results do not require a dark room for the process.